The Historic City of Ayutthaya is well-known from historical records. The Siamese Royal Court also kept meticulous records; many were destroyed in the sack of the city, but some have remained and are an important source of authenticity. The same can be said for the testimony of works of art, wall painting, sculpture, and palm leaf manuscripts which survive from the period. Of particular note are the surviving mural paintings in the crypt of Wat Ratchaburana.
The Historic City of Ayutthaya is managed as a historical park. There are other related laws enforced by related government units such as the Ratchaphatsadu Land Act, B. In addition to formal legal protection, there is a Master Plan for the property which has Cabinet approval. Committees for the protection and development of the Historic City of Ayutthaya at the national and local and levels have been established and there are a number of special-interest heritage conservation groups among the non-governmental community.
The budget for the conservation and development of the Historic City of Ayutthaya is allocated by the Government and the private sector. This will bring other important ancient monuments, some of which are outside of the presently-inscribed area under the same protection and conservation management afforded to the current World heritage property. Baku, Azerbaijan , 30 June — 10 July About us www.
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Help preserve sites now! Join the , Members. Search Advanced. By Properties. Cultural Criteria: i ii iii iv v vi Natural Criteria: vii viii ix x. Category All Cultural Natural Mixed. All With videos With photo gallery. Country Region Year Name of the property. Without With. Historic City of Ayutthaya Founded c.
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These wide boulevards allowed for easy transportation across town and offered views of important buildings and common squares from great distances. Public squares and parks were evenly dispersed at intersections. Pennsylvania Avenue stretched a mile west from the Capitol to the White House, and its use by officials ensured rapid development for the points in between. For the rural area to become a real city, L'Enfant knew it was crucial to incorporate planning strategies encouraging construction.
But his refusal to compromise led to frequent clashes that eventually cost him his position. City commissioners who were concerned with funding the project and appeasing the District's wealthy landowners didn't share L'Enfant's vision. The planner irked the commissioners when he demolished a powerful resident's house to make way for an important avenue and when he delayed producing a map for the sale of city lots fearing real estate speculators would buy up land and leave the city vacant.
Eventually, the city's surveyor, Andrew Ellicott, produced an engraved map that provided details for lot sales. It was very similar to L'Enfant's plan with practical changes suggested by officials , but the Frenchman got no credit for it. L'Enfant, now furious, resigned at the urging of Thomas Jefferson. When L'Enfant died in he had never received payment for his work on the capital and the city was still a backwater due partly to L'Enfant's rejected development and funding proposals.
Through the s to the McMillan Commission A century after L'Enfant conceived an elegant capital, Washington was still far from complete. In the s, cows grazed on the Mall, which was then an irregularly shaped, tree-covered park with winding paths. Trains passing through a railroad station on the Mall interrupted debate in Congress. Visitors ridiculed the city for its idealistic pretensions in a bumpkin setting and there was even talk after the Civil War of moving the capital to Philadelphia or the Midwest.
In , the Senate formed the McMillan Commission, a team of architects and planners who updated the capital based largely on L'Enfant's original framework.
They planned an extensive park system, and the Mall was cleared and straightened. Reclaimed land dredged from the river expanded the park to the west and south, making room for the Lincoln and Jefferson memorials. The Commission's work finally created the famous green center and plentiful monuments of today's Washington.
But the National Mall has been a great success, used for everything from picnics to protests. John Cogbill, chairman of the National Capital Planning Commission which oversees development in the city, says the Commission strives to fulfill L'Enfant's original vision while meeting the demands of a growing region.
I don't think any city in the world can say that the plan has been followed so carefully as it has been in Washington. Browse featured hotels or search our database for over hotels in the Washington, DC region, Maryland and Virginia.
It draws two meanings from its title. There is spine as mediator between brain and body, here alluded to by an evolutionary sequence from fish to amphibian to bird.
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But the dominant reference is to the spine of a book. As intended by the artist, the artwork lies in front of us like an open volume, the stairs functioning as pages. Moving from the bottom to the top, each step riser contain quotations in languages that collectively span the globe, written from earliest history to modern times.
On the south side the Grotto, designed by Lawrence Halprin, is framed by two interconnected fountains with water bubbling and coursing through and over elaborate architectonic surfaces. Composed of cement, glass and ceramic tiles, its multi-dimensional shape and earthy quality contrast with the more cerebral works by Fine and Halprin. Central Library The Richard J. Lee Lawrie: Sculpture in North Vestible of library When the library was renovated during the late s and early 90s, most of the collection was moved to the new Tom Bradley Wing.
Rotunda of library.
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Photograph courtesy of everywhereonce. Jud Fine: Spine. Richard J. Riordan Central Library. Lee Lawrie: Sculpture in North Vestible of library. Dean Cornwell: Building of the Missions. Julian Garnsey and A. Atrium of Tom Bradley Wing.
How one Frenchman’s vision became our capital city
Therman Statom: Chandeliers. Ann Preston: Illuminations. Renee Petropoulos: Seven Centers.
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